Health and Health Services Research Fund, Food and Health Bureau, HKSAR Government
Prof. Winnie Wing Sze MAK, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Ms. Wacy W. S. LUI, Corporate Clinical Psychology Services, Hospital Authority
Ms. Amy T. Y. CHAN, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Prof. Joseph T. F. LAU, School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Mr Ip Man Ho Amen
Room 304D, Wong Foo Yuan Building, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Research Assistant, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Prof. Winnie Wing Sze MAK
Rm 354, Sino Building, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Internet-based mindfulness programme for the promotion of public mental health: Randomised controlled trial
Wiseliving – an Internet-based mental health program
Online mindfulness program
General public’s mental health
A mindfulness program: The program teaches participants to cultivate mindfulness (paying attention nonjudgmentally to the present moment) by using various exercises that are adapted from the Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Program (MBSR), and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT).
A psychoeducation program: The program focuses on enhancing mental health literacy through the provision of basic facts and information about mental health. Contents of this program are based on MacDonald and O’Hara’s ‘10 elements of mental health promotion and demotion’, which is adopted by the UK and Victorian government as a reference for formulating mental health policies.
(1) At least 18 of age
(2) Read and understand Chinese
(3) Computer literate
(4) Have consistent access to the internet
(1) Severe to extremely severe depression or anxiety scores on the DASS-21 based on the cut-off scores recommended by the DASS21
(2) Scoring 1-3 on items 16, 21 or 28 of Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38) indicating possible suicidal ideation
(3) Currently receiving professional mental health services
(4) Currently taking psychotropic medication
Both Male and Female
(1)Well-being: The WHO 5-item Well-Being Index (WBI) will be used to measure overall psychological well-being at pre-test, each week before browsing the program, post-test and 3-month follow-up.
Besides, the following aspects will be assessed at pre-test, post-test and 3-month follow-up.
(2)Mental health: Participants will complete the 18-item Mental Health Inventory (MHI) to assess their mental health. Domains of mental health measured include anxiety, depression, behavioural control and positive affect.
(3)Life satisfaction: Life satisfaction will be assessed by the 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (LS).
(4)Pain: Average level of pain will be measured by the Visual Analogue Scale-Pain (VAS-P). Participants are asked to rate their average daily pain on a line from 0 (no pain) to 100 (very severe pain).
(5)Energy: Average level of energy will be measured by VAS-Energy (VAS-E). Participants are asked to rate their average daily energy level on a 100mm long line from 0 (no energy) to 100 (a lot of energy).
(6)Sleep: The 4-item sleep disturbance subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure (MOS-Sleep) will be used to assess how well participants sleep without tapping into other sleep-related medical conditions.
(7) Work absenteeism and productivity: The 7-item absenteeism and productivity questions of the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire will also be administered to participants being employed.
(1)Mindfulness: The shortened 20-item version of Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is administered in the study to examine the changes in the mindfulness. It will be measured at pre-test, week 3, week 5, week 7 of the program, post-test and 3-month follow-up.
(2)General self-efficacy: The 10-item General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) will be used to measure participants’ perceived self-efficacy to cope with stressful situations or problems. It will be measured at pre-test, week 3, week 5, week 7 of the program, post-test and 3-month follow-up.
(3) Self-compassion: The shortened 8-item Self-Other Four Immeasurable (SOFI) scale will be used to measure self-compassion. It will be measured at pre-test, week 3, week 5, week 7 of the program, post-test and 3-month follow-up.
(4)Users’ expected creditability of the program: At pre-test, the participants will be asked to complete the 6-item Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), which aims to examine if expectancies or perception of treatment credibility are related to outcomes.
(5)Users’ satisfaction: The 8-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) will be used to measure participants’ attitude towards and satisfaction with the internet-based interventions at post-test.
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