**Help Aids **Top

**Application: **The
determination of the number of patients needed in a prospective comparison of
survival curves with losses to follow-up, when the control group patients have
already been followed for some period, following hypotheses are usually used:

where is the hazard rate of patients in control group

is the hazard rate of patients in experimental group

**Procedure**:

- Enter

a) value of α, the probability of type I error

b) value of β, the probability of type II error, or (1-power) of the test

c) value of δ, the minimum hazards ratio, it is specified in alternate hypothesis

d) value of M_{S}, the control median survival (month), it is estimated
from existing control data

e) value of Q_{C}, the **proportion of patient in control group compared with
experimental group**

f) value of Q_{E}, the **proportion of patient in experimental group compared
with control group, where Q _{C} + Q_{E} = 1**

h) value of T_{0}, **accrual duration (month), the length of time to recruit patients for
study**

**g) value
of **T-T_{0}, **follow-up duration (month, the length of study time
of all recruited patients to the end of study T **

- Click the button “Calculate” to obtain

a) value of N, the total sample size of patients in the control and experimental arm

b) value
of N_{C},
the sample size of patients in the control arm

** c) value
of **N_{E}, the sample size of
patients in the experimental arm

**
d) value of **D, the total
number of deaths at the end of study

**Assumption:**

1.
During
the accrual period of T years, patients enter trial according to a Poisson
process with rate n per year. They are randomized with equal probability to
either the control or experimental treatment.

2.
The
times from entry to death are independent with common exponential distribution
within each treatment. The median time to death for the control treatment is M_{C}
and from a standard result for the exponential distribution, the death hazard
rate is.

3.
The
times from entry to loss to follow-up are independent of each other and of the
entry times and death times. They have exponential distributions with
exponential loss to follow-up rates for the control
group andfor the experimental group.

**Theory:**

We wish
to teat at significance
level α and to have power 1-β against the alternativefor prespecified.

Let,andwhereandare observed numbers of deaths andandare observed total time at risk (person-years exposure) for
the control and treatment groups respectively.

Distribution
of is used because it is less skewed and have a more accurate
asymptotic approximation.

is asymptotically normally
distributed with meanand variance, where *E* donotes expectation.

Under, the asymptotic size α test of rejects for , where andis the standard normal (1- p) quantile.

The
sample size to achieve specified significance level and power is, whereis the upper 100(1-p) percentile
of the standard normal distribution.

The above equation can be changed to two-sided tests by changing the above α to α/2. Here the calculator we use two-sided test.

**Notations:**

**α****:** The
probability of type I error (significance level) is the *probability of rejecting the true null
hypothesis. *

**β****:** The
probability of type II error (1 – power of the test) is the *probability of
not rejecting the false null hypothesis.*

**Example:**

Consider that a clinical trial is to be
conducted for a disease with moderate levels of mortality with hazard rare
λ=1.22, yielding 50% survivors after 0.57 month (*M _{S}*=0.57). Suppose that with treatment we are interested in a reduction in
hazard rate (

**Reference**:

- Rubinstein, Gail, Santner (1981)
*J Chron Dis*8: 67-74 - Rubinstein, Gail, Santner (1981)
*J Chron Dis*34: 469-479